Pub Med: Keyword Tobacco

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tobacco; +23 new citations

May 24, 2017 - 6:24am

23 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/05/24

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Categories: Tobacco News Feed

tobacco; +16 new citations

May 23, 2017 - 6:24am

16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/05/23

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Categories: Tobacco News Feed

A Novel Public Health Approach to Measuring Tobacco Cessation Needs Among Cancer Survivors in Alaska.

May 22, 2017 - 6:39am

A Novel Public Health Approach to Measuring Tobacco Cessation Needs Among Cancer Survivors in Alaska.

J Community Health. 2017 May 20;:

Authors: Underwood JM, Hyde-Rolland SJ, Thorsness J, Stewart SL

Abstract
Cancer survivors who continue to smoke have poorer response to treatment, higher risk for future cancers and lower survival rates than those who quit tobacco after diagnosis. Despite the increased risk for negative health outcomes, tobacco use among Alaskan cancer survivors is 19%, among the highest in the nation. To characterize and address tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who called a quit line for help in quitting tobacco, Alaska's Comprehensive Cancer Control program initiated a novel partnership with the state's Tobacco Quit Line. Alaska's Tobacco Quit Line, a state-funded resource that provides confidential coaching, support, and nicotine replacement therapies for Alaskan adults who wish to quit using tobacco, was used to collect demographic characteristics, health behaviors, cessation referral methods and other information on users. From September 2013- December 2014, the Alaska Quit Line included questions about previous cancer status and other chronic conditions to assess this information from cancer survivors who continue to use tobacco. Alaska's Tobacco Quit Line interviewed 3,141 smokers, 129 (4%) of whom were previously diagnosed with cancer. Most cancer survivors who called in to the quit line were female (72%), older than 50 years of age (65%), white (67%), and smoked cigarettes (95%). Cancer survivors reported a higher prevalence of asthma, COPD and heart disease than the non-cancer cohort. Approximately 34% of cancer survivors were referred to the quit line by a health care provider. This report illustrates the need for health care provider awareness of persistent tobacco use among cancer survivors in Alaska. It also provides a sound methodologic design for assessing ongoing tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who call a quit line. This survey methodology can be adapted by other public health programs to address needs and increase healthy behaviors among individuals with chronic disease.

PMID: 28528524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Modelling lung cancer mortality rates from smoking prevalence: Fill in the gap.

May 22, 2017 - 6:39am

Modelling lung cancer mortality rates from smoking prevalence: Fill in the gap.

Cancer Epidemiol. 2017 May 18;49:19-23

Authors: Martín-Sánchez JC, Bilal U, Clèries R, Lidón-Moyano C, Fu M, González-de Paz L, Franco M, Fernandez E, Martínez-Sánchez JM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to estimate the gap between smoking prevalence and lung cancer mortality and provide predictions of lung cancer mortality based on previous smoking prevalence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the Spanish National Health Surveys (2003, 2006 and 2011) to obtain information about tobacco use and data from the Spanish National Statistics Institute to obtain cancer mortality rates from 1980 to 2013. We calculated the cross-correlation among the historical series of smoking prevalence and lung cancer mortality rate (LCMR) to estimate the most likely time gap between both series. We also predicted the magnitude and timing of the LCMR peak.
RESULTS: All cross-correlations were statistically significant and positive (all above 0.8). For men, the most likely gap ranges from 20 to 34 years. The age-adjusted LCMR increased by 3.2 deaths per 100,000 people for every 1 unit increase in the smoking prevalence 29 years earlier. The highest rate for men was observed in 1995 (55.6 deaths). For women, the most likely gap ranges from 10 to 37 years. The age-adjusted LCMR increased by 0.28 deaths per 100,000 people for every 1 unit increase in the smoking prevalence 32 years earlier. The maximum rate is expected to occur in 2026 (10.3 deaths).
CONCLUSION: The time series of prevalence of tobacco smoking explains the mortality from lung cancer with a distance (or gap) of around 30 years. According to the lagged smoking prevalence, the lung cancer mortality among men is declining while in women continues to rise (maximum expected in 2026).

PMID: 28528290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Treatment non-response: Associations with smoking expectancies among treatment-seeking smokers.

May 22, 2017 - 6:39am

Treatment non-response: Associations with smoking expectancies among treatment-seeking smokers.

Addict Behav. 2017 May 09;73:172-177

Authors: Garey L, Taha SA, Kauffman BY, Manning KF, Neighbors C, Schmidt NB, Zvolensky MJ

Abstract
Despite the high rate of smoking cessation treatment non-response, relatively little empirical work has examined predictors of treatment non-response. The present study sought to explore the effect of smoking outcome expectancies on treatment response in a sample of treatment-seeking adult daily smokers (N=182; 53.3% female; Mage=40.67; SD=13.63). Results indicated that expectancies for smoking to reduce negative affect were related to an increased likelihood of treatment non-response (OR=0.73, CI: 0.54, 0.98). These findings remained significant after controlling for sex, presence of Axis I disorder, tobacco-related health problems, tobacco dependence, anxiety sensitivity, and condition assignment as well as other smoking expectancy dimensions. Post hoc analyses revealed that this relation was stronger for smokers in the integrated care condition vs. the standard care condition (Interaction: OR=1.69, CI: 1.05, 2.73). Additionally, expectancies for smoking to enhance positive affect and provide sensory satisfaction were associated with an increased likelihood of treatment response in the standard care condition. The current findings suggest expectancies that smoking will alleviate negative affect may be a risk factor of smoking cessation treatment non-response. Additionally, findings provide evidence that the relation between smoking expectancies and treatment non-response may differ by smoking cessation treatment.

PMID: 28528227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Changes in resting state functional brain connectivity and withdrawal symptoms are associated with acute electronic cigarette use.

May 22, 2017 - 6:39am

Changes in resting state functional brain connectivity and withdrawal symptoms are associated with acute electronic cigarette use.

Brain Res Bull. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Hobkirk AL, Nichols TT, Foulds J, Yingst JM, Veldheer S, Hrabovsky S, Richie J, Eissenberg T, Wilson SJ

Abstract
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness. The current study used fMRI to determine the effects of ecig use on rsFC and withdrawal symptoms. Independent component, dual regression, and permutation analyses were conducted on rsFC collected from ecig users before and after an ecig use episode (n=9) that occurred after 14h of nicotine abstinence. Similar to the known effects of nicotine administration, ecig use decreased rsFC of two clusters in the right frontal pole and frontal medial cortex with an attentional control salience network, and decreased rsFC of five clusters in the left thalamus, insula, and brain stem with a reward network encompassing the striatum. Ecig use increased inverse coupling between the prefrontal reward network and the right frontoparietal executive control network. Reductions in craving and difficulty with concentration were correlated with decreases in coupling strength between reward and executive control networks. These preliminary results suggest that the effects of ecig use on rsFC are similar to those seen with nicotine administration in other forms. In order to gain insight into the addictive potential of ecigs, further research is needed to understand the neural influence of ecigs across the range of nicotine delivery within this class of products.

PMID: 28528203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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"I don't believe it." Acceptance and skepticism of genetic health information among African-American and White smokers.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am

"I don't believe it." Acceptance and skepticism of genetic health information among African-American and White smokers.

Soc Sci Med. 2017 May 03;184:153-160

Authors: Waters EA, Ball L, Gehlert S

Abstract
RATIONALE: Effective translation of genomics research into practice depends on public acceptance of genomics-related health information.
OBJECTIVE: To explore how smokers come to accept or reject information about the relationship between genetics and nicotine addiction.
METHODS: Thirteen focus groups (N = 84) were stratified by education (seven < Bachelor's degree, six ≥ Bachelor's degree) and race (eight black, five white). Participants viewed a 1-min video describing the discovery of a genetic variant associated with increased risk of nicotine addiction and lung cancer. Next, they provided their opinions about the information. Two coders analyzed the data using grounded theory.
RESULTS: Pre-video knowledge about why people smoke cigarettes and what genetic risk means informed beliefs about the relationship between genes and addiction. These beliefs were not always consistent with biomedical explanations, but formed the context through which participants processed the video's information. This, in turn, led to information acceptance or skepticism. Participants explained their reactions in terms of the scientific merits of the research and used their existing knowledge and beliefs to explain their acceptance of or skepticism about the information.
CONCLUSION: Laypeople hold complex understandings of genetics and addiction. However, when lay and biomedical explanations diverge, genetics-related health information may be rejected.

PMID: 28527373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Induction of cell death by tospoviral protein NSs and the motif critical for cell death does not control RNA silencing suppression activity.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am

Induction of cell death by tospoviral protein NSs and the motif critical for cell death does not control RNA silencing suppression activity.

Virology. 2017 May 17;508:108-117

Authors: Singh A, Permar V, Jain RK, Goswami S, Kumar RR, Canto T, Palukaitis P, Praveen S

Abstract
Groundnut bud necrosis virus induces necrotic symptoms in different hosts. Previous studies showed reactive oxygen species-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) resulted in necrotic symptoms. Transgenic expression of viral protein NSs mimics viral symptoms. Here, we showed a role for NSs in influencing oxidative burst in the cell, by analyzing H2O2 accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of vacuolar processing enzymes, H2O2-responsive microRNA 319a.2 plus its possible target metacaspase-8. The role of NSs in PCD, was shown using two NSs mutants: one in the Trp/GH3 motif (a homologue of pro-apototic domain) (NSs(S189R)) and the other in a non-Trp/GH3 motif (NSs(L172R)). Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expressing NSs(S189R) enhanced the PCD response, but not TRV-NSs(L172R), while RNA silencing suppression activity was lost in TRV-NSs(L172R), but not in TRV-NSs(S189R). Therefore, we propose dual roles of NSs in RNA silencing suppression and induction of cell death, controlled by different motifs.

PMID: 28527340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Transcriptome-wide analysis of jasmonate-treated BY-2 cells reveals new transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation in tobacco.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am

Transcriptome-wide analysis of jasmonate-treated BY-2 cells reveals new transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation in tobacco.

J Plant Physiol. 2017 May 04;215:1-10

Authors: Yang Y, Yan P, Yi C, Li W, Chai Y, Fei L, Gao P, Zhao H, Wang Y, Timko MP, Wang B, Han S

Abstract
Jasmonates (JAs) are well-known regulators of stress, defence, and secondary metabolism in plants, with JA perception triggering extensive transcriptional reprogramming, including both activation and/or repression of entire metabolic pathways. We performed RNA sequencing based transcriptomic profiling of tobacco BY-2 cells before and after treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to identify novel transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation. A total of 107,140 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly, and at least 33,213 transcripts (31%) encode proteins, in which 3419 transcription factors (TFs) were identified, representing 72 gene families, as well as 840 transcriptional regulators (TRs) distributed among 19 gene families. After MeJA treatment BY-2 cells, 7260 differentially expressed transcripts were characterised, which include 4443 MeJA-upregulated and 2817 MeJA-downregulated genes. Of these, 227 TFs/TRs in 36 families were specifically upregulated, and 102 TFs/TRs in 38 families were downregulated in MeJA-treated BY-2 cells. We further showed that the expression of 12 ethylene response factors and four basic helix-loop-helix factors increased at the transcriptional level after MeJA treatment in BY-2 cells and displayed specific expression patterns in nic mutants with or without MeJA treatments. Our data provide a catalogue of transcripts of tobacco BY-2 cells and benefit future study of JA-modulated regulation of secondary metabolism in tobacco.

PMID: 28527333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Race/ethnicity modifies the association between school prevalence of e-cigarette use and student-level use: Results from the 2014 US National Youth Tobacco Survey.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am

Race/ethnicity modifies the association between school prevalence of e-cigarette use and student-level use: Results from the 2014 US National Youth Tobacco Survey.

Health Place. 2017 May 17;46:114-120

Authors: Yu E, Lippert AM

Abstract
This study assessed racial/ethnic moderation of the association between school prevalence of lifetime e-cigarette use and students' use. Using multilevel regression methods and data from the 2014 US National Youth Tobacco Survey, we found attending schools with high rates of e-cigarette use was positively associated with students' lifetime use of e-cigarettes, especially for white students. A cross-level interaction term indicated a weaker association between non-Hispanic black race and attending high-use schools (odds ratio [OR] =0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.39, 0.95). Results implicate race/ethnicity as an important effect modifier in the link between school contexts and teenage e-cigarette use.

PMID: 28527326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Effects of cigarette smoke exposure during suckling on food intake, fat mass, hormones, and biochemical profile of young and adult female rats.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Effects of cigarette smoke exposure during suckling on food intake, fat mass, hormones, and biochemical profile of young and adult female rats.

Endocrine. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Lisboa PC, Soares PN, Peixoto TC, Carvalho JC, Calvino C, Rodrigues VST, Bernardino DN, Younes-Rapozo V, Manhães AC, de Oliveira E, de Moura EG

Abstract
PURPOSE: Children from smoking mothers have a higher risk of developing obesity and associated comorbidities later in life. Different experimental models have been used to assess the mechanisms involved with this increased risk. Using a rat model of neonatal nicotine exposure via implantation of osmotic minipumps in lactating dams, we have previously shown marked sexual dimorphisms regarding metabolic and endocrine outcomes in the adult progeny. Considering that more than four thousand substances are found in tobacco smoke besides nicotine, we then studied a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure: adult male offspring had hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, secondary hyperthyroidism and lower adrenal hormones. Since litters were culled to include only males and since sexual dimorphisms had already been identified in the nicotine exposure model, here we also evaluated the effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on females.
METHODS: Wistar rat dams and their pups were separated into two groups of 8 litters each: SMOKE (4 cigarettes per day, from postnatal day 3 to 21) and CONTROL (filtered air). Offspring of both sexes were euthanized at PN21 and PN180.
RESULTS: Changes in male offspring corroborated previous data. At weaning, females showed lower body mass gain and serum triglycerides, but no alterations in visceral fat and hormones. At adulthood, females had higher body mass, hyperphagia, central obesity, hyperleptinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypercorticosteronemia, but no change in serum TSH and T3, and adrenal catecholamine CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dimorphisms were observed in several parameters, thus indicating that metabolic and hormonal changes due to smoke exposure during development are sex-dependent.

PMID: 28527122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Low Income as a Multiplicative Risk Factor for Oral Pain and Dental Problems Among U.S. Veteran Smokers.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Low Income as a Multiplicative Risk Factor for Oral Pain and Dental Problems Among U.S. Veteran Smokers.

Int J Behav Med. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Hicks TA, Wilson SM, Thomas SP, Dennis PA, Neal JM, Calhoun PS

Abstract
PURPOSE: Compared to the United States (U.S.) general population, military veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing dental problems. This study documented associations between cigarette use and measures of dental/oral concern in a population of U.S. veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan.
METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans Health and Needs Study, a study of U.S. military veterans. Out of 5000 surveys mailed to a random sample of OEF/OIF veterans, 1161 surveys were completed and returned. Among study respondents, N = 1114 had non-missing dental/oral pain data and were included for analysis. The survey also included smoking history and demographic information. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to cross-sectionally model the odds of experiencing dental/oral concerns as a function of smoking status. We also examined moderating effects of income and gender on the association between smoking and dental/oral concerns.
RESULTS: In univariate and multivariate models, current smoking was associated with risk for dental/oral concerns. However, this association was qualified by a Smoking × Income interaction. For those earning above US$20,000, smoking was not associated with dental/oral concerns. Among veterans with low income, smoking was associated with three times higher odds of increased dental/oral concerns. There was no significant Gender × Smoking interaction.
CONCLUSION: These findings underscore the relevance of factors that moderate the association between smoking and dental/oral concern, namely income. Findings also underscore the importance of interventions to mitigate income disparities in oral healthcare.

PMID: 28527104 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

Transl Behav Med. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Haskins BL, Lesperance D, Gibbons P, Boudreaux ED

Abstract
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

PMID: 28527027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Simultaneous conversion of gastric band to sleeve gastrectomy is associated with increased postoperative complications: an analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Simultaneous conversion of gastric band to sleeve gastrectomy is associated with increased postoperative complications: an analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

Surg Endosc. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Dietch ZC, Schirmer BD, Hallowell PT

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has gained popularity for the treatment of morbid obesity as gastric banding (BAND) has fallen out of favor. As a result, simultaneous conversion (CONV) of BAND to LSG is commonly performed. We hypothesized that CONV is associated with higher 30-day risk-adjusted serious morbidity.
METHODS: Preoperative characteristics and 30-day outcomes from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files 2010-2014 were selected for patients who underwent LSG. Patients undergoing CONV were identified. Descriptive comparisons were performed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between CONV and a composite measure of 30-day serious morbidity and mortality.
RESULTS: Overall, 35,307 patients met criteria for inclusion, of which 943 (2.7%) underwent CONV. The median age of patients undergoing CONV was higher (46 vs 44 years, p < 0.001) and a greater percentage of CONV patients was female (84.8 vs 77.9%, p < 0.001) than LSG patients. CONV patients had lower rates of common comorbidities, including diabetes (14.9 vs 23.1%, p < 0.001), hypertension (41.9 vs 48.6%, p < 0.001), and tobacco use (7.2 vs 9.8%, p < 0.001), as well as lower median BMI (41 vs 44, p < 0.001). Individual unadjusted outcomes of serious 30-day complications were similar between both groups, as was a composite measure of serious morbidity (CONV 4.3% vs LSG 3.6%, p = 0.1). However, after controlling for demographics, comorbidities, and concurrent band removal, CONV was associated with increased odds of serious 30-day morbidity (1.44, 95% CI 1.03-1.97) (c-statistic: 0.60).
CONCLUSIONS: Serious morbidity following LSG is uncommon; however, CONV is associated with a modest increase in risk-adjusted adverse 30-day outcomes. Patients being evaluated for CONV should be counseled about the added risks versus LSG alone. Further research is warranted to identify whether the incremental risks of CONV may be modifiable.

PMID: 28526961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Urinary Cadmium and Cotinine Levels and Hair Mercury Levels in Czech Children and Their Mothers Within the Framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES Projects.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Urinary Cadmium and Cotinine Levels and Hair Mercury Levels in Czech Children and Their Mothers Within the Framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES Projects.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Forysová K, Pinkr-Grafnetterová A, Malý M, Krsková A, Mráz J, Kašparová L, Čejchanová M, Sochorová L, Rödlová S, Černá M

Abstract
The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin project was performed in 2011-2012 in 17 European countries to harmonize all steps of the human biomonitoring survey. Urinary cadmium, cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and hair mercury were measured in children (N = 120, 6-11 years) and their mothers of reproductive age, living in urban or rural areas. Cadmium in mothers' and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean (GM) concentration 0.227 and 0.109 μg/L, respectively; 95th percentile (P95) was 0.655 and 0.280 μg/L in mothers and children, respectively. No age-related, education-related, or urban versus rural differences were observed within the frame of each population group. Cadmium urinary level in mothers was about twofold compared with children. Higher levels were obtained in all smoking mothers but not in occasionally smoking or mothers and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Mercury values in mothers were significantly higher in urban than in rural populations but not in children. GM and P95 for mercury in children's hair were 0.098 and 0.439 μg/g and in mothers' hair were 0.155 and 0.570 μg/g. Concentrations for mercury in the Czech samples were lower than European average. Hair mercury increased significantly with consumption of fish or seafood and with number of amalgam tooth fillings (in children). A positive association was found with family educational level. No influence of age was observed. Urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels were lower than health-based guidelines with one exception. High levels of urinary cotinine were found in the 12 smoking mothers (GM approximately 500 μg/L); lower levels in occasionally smoking mothers, N = 11 (34.5 μg/L). The mean cotinine levels in nonsmoking mothers who reported daily exposure to ETS was 10.7 μg/L. A similar mean value (10.8 μg/L) was obtained in six children who had daily exposure to ETS. In children without exposure to ETS, the mean cotinine level was 1.39 μg/L urine. Cotinine in the urine of children demonstrates limited protection of the Czech children against exposure to ETS.

PMID: 28526941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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The proliferation of &#039;We Sell Tobacco Here&#039; signs at the point-of-sale of tobacco retailers in Melbourne, Australia.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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The proliferation of 'We Sell Tobacco Here' signs at the point-of-sale of tobacco retailers in Melbourne, Australia.

Tob Control. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Bayly M, Scollo M, Wakefield M

PMID: 28526758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Generation and characterization of caprine chymosin in corn seed.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Generation and characterization of caprine chymosin in corn seed.

Protein Expr Purif. 2017 May 16;:

Authors: Liu WG, Wang YP, Zhang ZJ, Wang M, Lv QX, Liu HW, Meng LC, Lu M

Abstract
Chymosin is widely used in the dairy industry, and much is produced through recombinant DNA in organisms such as bacteria and tobacco. In this study, we used a new transgenic method to express caprine chymosin in corn seeds with lower cost and better storage capability. The recombinant chymosin protein was successfully expressed at an average level of 0.37 mg/g dry weight, which is 0.27% of the total soluble protein in the corn seed. Prochymosin can be activated to produce a chymosin protein with the ability to induce clotting in milk, similar to the commercial protein. The activity of the purified recombinant chymosin was as high as 178.5 U/mg. These results indicate that we have successfully established a technology for generating corn seed-derived caprine chymosin for potential use in the dairy industry.

PMID: 28526454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Susceptibility to tobacco product use among youth in wave 1 of the population Assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Susceptibility to tobacco product use among youth in wave 1 of the population Assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study.

Prev Med. 2017 May 16;:

Authors: Trinidad DR, Pierce JP, Sargent JD, White MM, Strong DR, Portnoy DB, Green VR, Stanton CA, Choi K, Bansal-Travers M, Shi Y, Pearson J, Kaufman AR, Borek N, Coleman BN, Hyland A, Carusi C, Kealey S, Leas E, Noble M, Messer K

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate susceptibility and ever use of tobacco products among adolescents and young adults in the US. Cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1(2013-2014) adolescent (12-17year-olds; n=13,651) and young adult (18-24year-olds; n=9112) data from the nationally-representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study was conducted. At 12years, 5% were ever tobacco users and 36% were susceptible to use. Seventy percent were susceptible at age 17years, and the same proportion were ever users at age 22years. Susceptibility levels were comparable for cigarettes and e-cigarette (28.6% and 27.4%, respectively), followed by hookah (22.0%), pipes (17.5%), cigars (15.2%), and smokeless tobacco (9.7%). Non-Hispanic (NH) Black (Adjusted Odds Ratio [ORadj]=1.36; 95% Confidence Limit [CL], 1.18-1.56) and Hispanic (ORadj=1.34: 95% CL,1.19-1.49) adolescent never- users were more likely to be susceptible to future use of a tobacco product than NH Whites. Susceptibility was higher with age (15-17yrs. vs 12-14yrs.: ORadj=1.69; 95% CL, 1.55-1.85) and parental education (college graduates vs less than HS education: ORadj=1.22, 95% CL, 1.08-1.39). Compared to exclusive users of hookah, cigars, or smokeless products, larger proportions of exclusive e-cigarette ever users were also susceptible to cigarette use. Among adolescents, lower levels of ever use of tobacco products are often counterbalanced by higher levels of susceptibility for future use, which may suggest delayed initiation in some groups. Ever users of a given tobacco product were more susceptible to use other tobacco products, putting them at risk for future multiple tobacco product use.

PMID: 28526392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Malnutrition and poor oral health status are major risks among primary school children at Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Malnutrition and poor oral health status are major risks among primary school children at Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

J Health Popul Nutr. 2017 May 19;36(1):17

Authors: Mustufa MA, Jamali AK, Sameen I, Burfat FM, Baloch MY, Baloch AH, Baloch GR, Lashari SK, Ayaz SM, Baloch MY

Abstract
BACKGROUND: This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country.
METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma.
RESULTS: Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use).
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.

PMID: 28526065 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Tobacco News Feed

Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC) China survey.

May 21, 2017 - 6:09am
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Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC) China survey.

BMC Public Health. 2017 May 19;17(1):476

Authors: Li Z, Marshall TE, Fong GT, Quah ACK, Feng G, Jiang Y, Hitchman SC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Health warnings labels (HWLs) have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs.
METHODS: Adult non-smokers (n = 1324) were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011-November 2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers' demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012), differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined.
RESULTS: 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42-4.13, p = 0.001) noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99, p = 0.04) were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24-3.33, p = 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health information and pictures. Additionally, because the HWLs are noticed more often by non-smokers with a smoking spouse/partner, HWLs could be used to communicate the dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to non-smokers.

PMID: 28525994 [PubMed - in process]

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